因果、(because, in that, for, therefore, thus, accordingly, consequently, given, hence, so…that, so…as to, if…then, when…then, as long as……)转折、(albeit, although, though, but, despite, even though, however, in spite of, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, while, whatever, regardless, even if, even though, yet, and yet……)递进、(even, indeed………)对比、(in contrast, on the contrary, far from, on the other hand, rather than, instead of, not…but, paradoxically, ironically, surprisingly, unexpectedly, curiously……)等等。



  (1) 简单的直接重复

  The eradication of pollution is not merely a matter of ___, though the majestic beauty of nature is indeed an important consideration.

  A. economics B. legislation C. cleanliness D. aesthetics E. restoration


  Comparatively few rock musicians are willing to laugh at themselves, although a hint of—-can boost sales of video clips very nicely.

  A. self-deprecation B. congeniality C. cynicism D. embarrassment E. self-doubt


  Melodramas, which presented stark oppositions between innocence and criminality, virtue and corruption, good and evil, were popular precisely because they offered the audience a world ___of___.

  A. bereft.. theatricality B. composed.. adversity C. full.. circumstantiality D. deprived.. polarity

  E. devoid.. neutrality


  (2) 解释型重复

  The Muses are___deities: they avenge themselves without mercy on those who weary of their charms.

  A. rueful B. ingenuous C. solicitous D. vindictive E. dispassionate


  Unenlightened authoritarian managers rarely recognize a crucial reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups: a modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents___.

  A. demur B. schism C. cooperation D. compliance E. shortsightedness

  冒号后面的内容解释了民主方式运作的工作团体中为何少有严重的冲突,所以即使看不懂a modicum of

  tolerance for dissent是什么东西,也应该知道这个东西避免了严重冲突,故选B。

  (3) 根据语法结构推断重复

  The valedictory address, as it has developed in American colleges and universities over the years, has become a very strict form, a literary ___ that permits very little ___.

  A. text.. clarity B. work.. tradition C. genre.. deviation

  D. oration.. grandiloquence E. achievement.. rigidity

  a literary ___ that permits very little ___. 是前面的a very strict form的同位语,所以第一空格填form的同义或近义词,that permits very little___. 这个从句完成后应为strict的同义或近义词。

  Many more eighteenth-century novels were written by women than by men, but this dominance has, until very

  recently, been regarded merely as ___ fact, a bit of arcane knowledge noted only by bibliographers.

  A. a controversial B. a statistical C. an analytical D. an explicit E. an unimpeachable

  这道题同样,a bit of arcane knowledge noted only by bibliographers.是前面的___ fact的同义重复,所以空格应填入文献学家关注的事实,已知的五个选项里显然只有B选项的statistical(统计的)是文献学家的份内工作。

  (4) 凭借具有指示作用的形容词或代词来寻找重复

  Longdale and Stern discovered that mitochondria and chloroplasts ___ a long, identifiable sequence of DNA; such a coincidence could be ___ only by the transfer of DNA between the two systems.

  A. manufacture.. accomplished B. reveal.. repeated C. exhibit.. determined

  D. share.. explained E. maintain.. contradicted

  下半句的such a coincidence说明第一空格的动词填入后应体现为是一种巧合,两个看不懂是什么的、只知道是不一样的东西(非相关专业的绝大部分学生是不太可能认识mitochondria和chloroplasts这两个词的)怎样了一个长的、可以认为是一模一样的DNA序列就是一个巧合呢?当然只有D的 share表示了这个意思。

  Laws do not ensure social order since laws can always be ___ , which makes them ___ unless the authorities have the will and the power to detect and punish wrongdoing.

  A. contested.. provisional B. circumvented.. antiquated C. repealed.. vulnerable

  D. violated.. ineffective E. modified.. unstable


  3. 判断语气或感情色彩


  Johnson never ___ to ignore the standards of decent conduct mandated by company policy if ___ compliance with instructions from his superiors enabled him to do so, whatever the effects on his subordinates.

  A. deigned.. tacit B. attempted.. halfhearted C. intended.. direct

  D. scrupled.. literal E. wished.. feigned

  这句话对于英语阅读能力较差的学生来说,通过正常的阅读理解来做还是有些难度的。但是如果注意到whatever the effects on his subordinates(无论对下级产生什么影响)的语气,就可以判断第一空格填入后应表示johnson干的不是什么好事,唯一符合这一判断的是D选项。

  Ironically, the party leaders encountered no greater ___ their efforts to build a progressive party than the ___ of the progressives already elected to the legislature.

  A. support for.. advocacy B. threat to.. promise C. benefit from.. success

  D. obstacle to.. resistance E. praise for.. reputation


  Although ___ is usually thought to spring from regret for having done something wrong, it may be that its origin

  is the realization that one’s own nature is irremediably ___.

  A. contrition.. resilient B. certitude.. confident C.skepticism.. innocent

  D. remorse.. flawed E. resignation. frivolous

  第二空格被副词irremediably(不可救药地)修饰,根据这个词带出的语气可以判断第二空格应填入一个负面色彩的词,符合这一判断的只有D、 E两个选项。第一空格remorse的意思完全地对应“regret for having done something wrong”,故选D。

  Any language is a conspiracy against experience in the sense that it is a collective attempt to ___ experience by reducing it into discrete parcels.

  A. extrapolate B. transcribe C. complicate D. amplify E. manage

  这句话如果没有看过相关背景的书籍几乎是不可理解的,但是我们可以通过语气和感情色彩的判断来排除错误的选项,最终剩下一个看不出错的选项,也就是正确选项了。因为语言是对抗经验的阴谋(conspiracy against),所以空格应填入一个负面色彩的动作,只有C选项(使复杂化、使变得麻烦)和E选项(manage除了中性的经营管理之外,还可以表示负面的操纵控制)符合这一判断。结合方式状语by reducing(减少、分解、简化)来看,C选项应被排除,最后剩下仍然看不懂句意的E选项就对了。


  Natural selection tends to eliminate genes that cause inherited diseases, acting most strongly against the most severe diseases; consequently, hereditary diseases that are ___ would be expected to be very ___, but, surprisingly, they are not.

  A. lethal.. rare B. untreated.. dangerous C. unusual.. refractory

  D. new.. perplexing E. widespread.. acute


  Although ___, almost self-effacing in his private life, he displays in his plays and essays a strong ___ publicity and controversy.

  A. conventional.. interest in B. monotonous.. reliance on C. shy.. aversion toward

  D. retiring.. penchant for E. evasive.. impatience with


  Considering how long she had yearned to see Italy, her first reaction was curiously ___.

  A. meditative B. tepid C. categorical D. unoriginal E. insightful