Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commercial aircraft, are

made with low-power circuitry, which is more susceptible to interference than the

vacuum-tube circuitry found in older planes. (Fact)

During landing, navigation systems receive radio signals from the airport to guide

the plane to the runway. (Principle)

Recently, one plane with low-power circuitry veered off course during landing, its dials

dimming, when a passenger turned on a laptop computer. (Evidence)

Clearly, modern aircraft navigation systems are being put at risk by the electronic

devices that passengers carry on board, such as cassette players and laptop

computers. (Conclusion)


A double-blind study, in which neither the patient nor the primary researcher knows

whether the patient is being given the drug being tested or a placebo, is the most

effective procedure for testing the efficacy of a drug. (Principle)

But we will not be able to perform such a study on this new drug, since the drug

will have various effects on the patients’ bodies, which will make us aware of

whether the patients are getting the drug or a placebo. (Anti-Consideration)


The interstitial nucleus, a sub-region of the brain’s hypothalamus, is typically smaller for

male cats than for female cats. (Fact)

A neurobiologist performed autopsies on male cats who died from disease X, a disease

affecting no more than 0.5 percent of male cats, and found that these male cats had

interstitial nuclei that were as large as those generally found in female cats.


Thus, the size of the interstitial nucleus determines whether or not male cats can

contract disease X,(Consideration that can be drawn from the first one)

but, the hypothalamus is known not to be causally linked to disease Y, and

disease X is a subtype of disease Y. (Fact)


More and more computer programs that provide solutions to mathematical problems in

engineering are being produced, and it is thus increasingly unnecessary for practicing engineers to have a thorough understanding of fundamental mathematical

principles. (Conclusion)

Consequently, in training engineers who will work in industry, less emphasis should be

placed on mathematical principles, so that space in the engineering curriculum will

be available for other important subjects. (Conclusion)

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